Monza Low Downforce Setup

There is no circuit in F1 that looks simpler than Monza, a typical circuit dominated by long straights. In response to this, downforce is not that favourable here, on the contrary, low downforce setup aiming to reduce drag is the key to win the race.

Front Wing

Front wing is not often changed significantly from race to race as it is the part that determines downstream flow, therefore affecting the design of all following parts. However, for Monza, most teams have adjust their front wing by removing cascades, lower down AoA or reducing chord length.

McLaren has removed all the outer cascades and replaced their 2-section upper flap with one single upper flap.


McLaren Front Wing Change from Spa to Monza

Source: Sutton Image

McLaren Front Wing in Monza

Another noticeable change on front wing is from Ferrari, who has removed all the small upper cascades and made several changes to the flaps and endplates profile.


Ferrari Front Wing Comparison from Spa to Monza

Rear Wing

The rear wing design is closely related to exhaust/cooling, sidepod and rear diffuser. Teams have different adjustments based on their cars. Major methods to reduce downforce/drag in Monza includes slimming rear wings, introducing V-shape profile and use gurney flap on diffusers.

With Massa hitting 3rd in qualifying and Alonso finishing on podium from 10th start, Ferrari proved their speed in Monza. They modified the beam wing with a V-cut profile and slimmed outer span, fit gurneys along the trailing edge of the diffuser, and quite uniquely, added flaps above and below the diffuser. The V-cut supplies the car with enough downforce at corners with low downforce setup for straights. Use of gurneys and additional flaps help regulating the flow, correspondingly reducing drag.

farrari monza rear design
Source: ScarbsF1

Ferrari Rear Design for Monza

Similar to Ferrari, Red Bull also used a V-shaped beam wing, in combination with a rear wing of very small AoA. They’re among the teams that suffer the most from the ban of exhaust blown diffuser this year and quite obviously still haven’t found a ideal design for their underbody rear part. In Monza, they’ve also added an additional tier to the diffuser gurneys, though that didn’t seem to give them clear benefit.

Red Bull V-shaped Beam Wing

Source: Sutton Image

Additional Tier on RB8 Diffuser Gurney

As the low downforce rear wing has clearly given Button huge advantage in Spa, McLaren is quite happy using this setup for both cars in Monza with a few modifications to further reduce drag. Instead of slimming the wing as other teams, McLaren cleverly introduced a curved profile at the tip of their beam wing to smooth air flow.

Source: ScarbsF1

McLaren Rear Design for Monza – Note Curved Tips on Beam Wing

Lotus has drawn wide attention because of their so-called DDRS system – It’s still quite confusing how people call this device though. Anyway we’re not seeing it until Singapore since Monza is not a preferable circuit for this system. In Monza, Lotus runs on the shortest chord rear wing, which makes it look quite tiny from behind.

Source: F1 Technical

Lotus Rear Design for Monza

Check this post from ScrabsF1 for more detailed analysis of rear end design based on each car relating exhaust/cooling/sidepod to rear wing assembly.


Aerodynamic Components on F1 Car

A F1 car is made of thousands of components and nearly every part need to take aerodynamics into consideration. However, there’re some major aerodynamics components that make huge difference to car aerodynamic performance.

Example of F1 Car Major Components – Exploded View of a BMW

These aero components get mentioned again and again in various F1 technical analysis assuming that people know what they are, but the fact is most people have no idea on those terms! I’m going through some major ones starting from the front of the car to the rear.

Front Wing

The first part we see on the front is definitely the front wing. Being the first means that it’s the first part on the car that interacts with the air, therefore having an important job to determine the under stream flow through the rest of car. The front wing generates 25% to 40% total downforce. Major design modification lies on the endplates and flaps of the wing, aiming to reduce tip vortex and wake of front wheel, which is one of the biggest drag components. In addition, ducts and slots are becoming popular in recent years, as can be seen in Mercedes W duct in 2011 and DDRS in 2012.

Sophisticated Front Wing Flaps and Endplate of MP4-27

Barge Board

This are vertical panels located between the front wheels and sidepods. It deals with the dirty air produced by the front wheels, guiding and smoothing air flow into the sidepod. In recent years’ designs, it may also have the function of feeding more air into the diffuser.

ferrari f2012 side view

Ferrari F2012 Side-view: Barge Board in White


Sidepod is the part alongside the cockpit that accommodates the radiator and engine exhaust. Main Function of Sidepod is to 1) cool down the engine and gearbox; 2) control underbody flow to generate desired downforce. The profile of sidepods are varied significantly on different cars based on different aerodynamics configuration. A memorable design is McLaren L-shaped sidepod on MP4-26 in 2011.

MP4-26 L-shaped Sidepod


The opening channel above drivers head that guides fresh and cold air to the cylinder for cooling purpose. Nevertheless, besides the conventional aim of cooling, the air flow through airbox can be utilised to generate more downforce/reduce drag by guiding it later to the desired parts on the rear wing assembly. F duct is a good example making advantage of this air flow. It’s also suspected that the Lotus E20 DDRS/ Super DRS has a tricky design of ‘ear’ inside the airbox.

‘Ear’ Inside Lotus E20 Airbox to Help Guiding the Air

Rear Wing

With the use of F duct and DRS, rear wing is always under spotlight in recent seasons. We’re talking about rear wing assembly here which normally consists of two sets of airfoil. The upper set is the main downforce generator including DRS, while the lower set is known as the beam wing. The whole rear wing sets generate to 30% to 40% total downforce.

Adjustable Rear Flap (DRS)

Flap on the rear wing whose angle of attack can be adjusted by the driver in order to reduce drag. Check out more about DRS here.

F duct

A driver controlled drag reduction system, in which a slot gap is opened on the rear wing flap. This air flow through the gap is able to stall the wing, therefore reducing drag.

Beam Wing

A single element wing at the lower part of the rear wing that helps regulate the air below the upper rear wing sets and improves diffuser performance. As F duct mounted on the upper flap is banned, there is now more aerodynamics consideration taken into the beam wing design. E.g. Lotus DDRS system which utilise beam wing to further reduce drag.

Source: Sutton Image

Lotus E20 Rear Wing Assembly

Gurney Flap

An L-shaped strip along the trailing edge of the wing, commonly on rear wings. With the use of gurney flap, flow separation can be delayed at high angle of attack so that more downforce can be generated. Gurney are used more in wet weather where more grip (downforce) is needed. FIA regulates that Gurneys on the rear wing should not exceed 20mm.

Source: ScarbsF1

Gurney flap along the edge of rear wing


The rear element at the underbody of F1 car close to the floor, from which air exits the car. This is the last components where air interacts with the car. The speed of air flow can significantly influence downforce, whereby the faster the flow exits, the more downforce is generated. Most famous designs in recent years are Brawn GP double diffuser in 2009 and exhaust blown diffuser which many teams used in 2011.

Brawn GP double diffuser

Source: ScarbsF1

Exhaust Blown Diffuser